Astronomy in ancient Egypt


Astronomy in ancient Egypt

Astronomy in ancient Egypt, The Egyptians about six thousand years ago, relied on the solar calculation on which the nations and peoples who came after they relied their year consisted of 365 days divided into 12 months of thirty days each, and the remaining five days were holidays. The Egyptians are the ones who invented the sundial, ie the sundial, which was around 1500 BC.

The ancient Egyptians used several types of sundial, depending on the proportions of the shade caused by daylight to the pole or string fixed in front of it; In addition to using the column facing the sunlight and measuring its length, the Egyptians used two other types of simple tools, such as a wooden or ivory ruler with a vertical edge and a vertical thread.

The sundial in the Pharaonic civilization.

The water clock consists of a vessel decorated on the outside with images of stars, constellations, and hieroglyphic inscriptions, some of which say: “Each image has its own hour in order to determine the hours of the night when the constellations or positions are not visible, and thus the correct hour for sacrifice can be determined at all times.”


The internal surface of the bowl contained the following phrase (for each month there is a vertical row of twelve signs, each sign indicating one of the twelve hours of the night in that month), and this phrase came to take into account the different hours of the night and the hours of the day in summer and winter. This vessel was provided with a whistling hole at the bottom that allowed the liquid to pass gradually, and the vessel was inserted from within it according to a regular and constant rate of water descent during each hour.

The MERKHET for scanning the stars and determining the hour at night

It is a dual device consisting of a split date branch in its widest part. The slit is placed next to the eye and looks through it towards the lead thread (the plumb).


The shawl is held by an assistant who sits near the observer who is holding the Marquette (the dates branch). This shawl consists of a horizontal ruler on which the lead thread is hung so that the instrumented thread matches a mark on the wood. Egyptian myths mentioned that the god Thoth was the one who invented all sciences and brought them down to the earth, where he ruled for three thousand years, dividing the day into ten hours, each hour one hundred minutes, and each minute one hundred seconds. According to Egyptian mythology, Thoth is the first teacher of humanity and the inventor of writing.

The Festival calendar in ancient Egypt.


This information shows that the mathematical system in the calendar was decimal and was not a sexagesimal system like the Sumerians. But it is the myths that told us that there is a sexagesimal system implicit within the decimal system. The ancient Egyptian calendar science divided the six (12) months, and each month into (20) days and distributed the (360) days into three equal seasons as we will see. This means that it connects the decimal system And the sixty, which is what happened with the Babylonian astronomical system as well.

Astronomy in ancient Egypt – the lunar calendar


There is a name for each of the lunar months, but there is a name for each day in the lunar month, which consists of 28 days, and it seems that the lunar calendar had two phases: early (leap) and late (dotted). The first fourteen days, which are the days of the growth of the moon from the crescent to the full moon, had fourteen deities who graze every day, as well as the second fourteen days of the moon’s waning from the full moon to the crescent

Astronomy in ancient Egypt – Seasons of the year at the Pharaohs


The month of the flood (Akhet) is the appearance of water on Earth, which is the flood of the Nile, which starts from mid-July until mid-November. The month of winter (Burt), i.e. the seed leaving the ground; is the season of germination and rain, and it begins from mid-November to mid-March. Summer month (Shimo) i.e. lack of water; It is the season of burning, and it starts from mid-March to mid-July, during which the plant is matured, and harvested.

Astronomy in ancient Egypt – Palm Calendar

The Egyptians used the inside of the right palm also to detect the horoscope and know the sign to which man belongs, where the hour of birth is placed on the pinky, the day of birth is written on the ring finger, and the month of birth is written in the middle, and the lunar day of birth is written on the fourth finger, and the year is written on the thumb, and back to the tables Horoscopes Through this information, it is possible to know the sign from which a person descends, and to read his horoscope from it.

Astronomy at the Pharaohs – General Egyptian (Coptic and Pharaonic) calendar table

They used to divide the month into three divisions, each section including ten days, and we cannot call it a week.

Magic in ancient Egypt.

Magic played a significant role in ancient Egyptian society and was an integral part of their religious beliefs and practices. The ancient Egyptians believed that magic was a powerful tool that could be used to harness the supernatural forces of the gods and control the natural world.

Magical spells and incantations were often inscribed on amulets, papyri, and other objects and used in a variety of ways. For example, magical spells were used to protect the living and the dead, heal illnesses, control the weather, and influence the outcome of battles.

One of the most famous examples of ancient Egyptian magic is the Book of the Dead, which is a collection of spells and prayers that were believed to help the deceased navigate the afterlife. The spells in the Book of the Dead were designed to help the soul of the deceased overcome obstacles and dangers on its journey to the afterlife and to ensure that the person was judged favorably by the gods.

In addition to using magical spells and incantations, the ancient Egyptians also believed in the power of talismans and amulets. These objects were believed to have magical powers and were worn or carried by individuals as a form of protection.

Overall, magic played a significant role in ancient Egyptian society and was an important part of their religious and cultural beliefs. The use of magic was seen as a way to connect with the gods and exert control over the natural world.


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