If the universe’s wonders can be confined to a single world, if the earth can be combined in a single world, then Egyptian would be the whimsical utterance that is heard. the land of million colors across its skies with greenish lows and magnificent highs. a land each day unfolding a new surprise. This is Egypt this is home to its children of the sun, but also home to just about anyone.

A cornucopia of the diverse, from history, geography to music, and of course the Arabic verse. more than a country, this land is time and space, where modernity mingles with relics of a once upon a time place it is grace, a joyful dance that witnesses nights melting into days.


Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula.

Geographical coordinates: 27 00 N, 30 00 e

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 1,001, 450 sq km

land: 995, 450 sq km

water: 6,000 sq km

Land boundaries: total: 2,665 km

border Countries: Gaza Strip 11 km, Palestine 266 km, Libya 1,115 km, Sudan 1,273 km

coastline: 2,450 km

Climate: desert; hot, desert summers with moderate winters

Terrain: vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile Valley and delta

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m

highest point: Mount Catherin 2,629 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc,

irrigated land: 33,000 sq km

Unique geographic and climatic conditions, a religion centered on death and the afterlife, and a stable hierarchical society and system of government shaped the world’s longest-lasting civilization—ancient Egypt.  Egypt’s glory spanned more than four millennia, from around 5500 B.C.E. to its conquest by the Greeks in 332 B.C.E. During this period, Egypt created stunning architectural and artistic treasures that continue.

From the beginning,  Egypt’s greatness came from the Nile.  Even before the first people ventured into the northeast corner of Africa, the Nile was a paradise. Its waters were fresh and its banks fertile. The river’s annual floods washed impurities from the ground and deposited silt rich with minerals. People came and settled along its borders, eventually developing strong agricultural communities. The mildness and predictability of the Nile’s seasons allowed the early Egyptians to prosper. Over time, they built canals, irrigation ditches, and terraced fields to control the water and increase their harvests. Farmers amassed surpluses, freeing much of the population from agricultural pursuits and allowing other professions to develop. The surplus food was also a commodity that could be traded, using the Nile itself to transport these goods.  to amaze us today.


The Nile figured strongly in the development of religion in Egypt. The early Egyptians were unaware of the origin of the waters that annually inundated their fields. To them, flourish could only have been supernatural a gift of the gods” (Hagen  In fact, in the Egyptians’ eyes, the Nile was not just a river but was itself a  god, called Hapi  Other gods dwelled in the river or were associated with it from the river gods Krophi and Mophi who sat under the rocks and made the water flow to the God of fertility

what was the book of the dead?

The Book of the Dead was a collection of spells and illustrations written on a papyrus roll. The papyrus roll was put inside a hollow statue, or sometimes wrapped within the mummy wrappings, and placed in the tomb with all the other things which the dead person would need for the afterlife.

The Book of the Dead, which was placed in the coffin or burial chamber of the deceased, was part of a tradition of funerary texts which includes the earlier Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts which were painted onto objects, not written on papyrus. Some of the spells included in the book were drawn from these older works and date to the 3rd millennium BCE. Other spells were composed later in Egyptian history, dating to the Third Intermediate Period (11th to 7th centuries BCE). A number of the spells which make up the Book continued to be separately inscribed on tomb walls and sarcophagi, as the spells from which they originated always had been.